*Viral liver dieseases

Until now(June 6, 1997), six hepatitis viruses are identified which can cause virus hepatitis in humans. These are hepatitis A, B, C, D, E and G(GBV-C) viruses. However, whether hepatitis virus type G(GBV-C) replicates in human liver is not confirmed as yet.Thus, any type of hepatitis virus can cause acute virus hepatitis in humans. Among those, hepatitis B virus(HBV), HCV, HDV and HGV(GBV-C) are known to infect persistently in human liver under certain circumstances, eventually leading to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and finally, to hepatocellular carcinoma in HBV, HCV and HDV (and perhaps in HGV or GBV-C) otherwise it is eradicated for example, by interferon treatment.
  1. Acute virus hepatitis

    Laparoscopically, acute virus he1patitis is recognized as a large reddish liver. Parenchymal necroinflammatory changes result in edematous swelling of the infected liver with smooth surface unless the macroscopic collapse occur. At the same time, an acute flare-up gives the infected liver reddish tone.




  2. Acute red liver atrophy due to fulminant hepatitis
    Poor prognosis is still common in the patient with fulminant hepatitis. This picture was also taken postmortem. The volume of the liver is so markedly reduced that the liver surface becomes shrunken. Parenchymal haemorrhage is apparent on the liver surface.





  3. Chronic virus hepatitis
    A large whitish liver is characteristic in a patient with chronic virus hepatitis. The liver is often mildly to moderately swollen and the liver surface becomes slightly uneven. Small depressions on the liver surface are also common findings, reflecting the scattered parenchymal collapses.




  4. Viral liver cirrhosis

Macronodular cirrhosis with narrow stroma is characteristic in viral liver cirrhosis. Liver edges are extremely dull and the liver surface is coarsely nodular. The wall of gallbladder is whitish and looks turbid.




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Third Department of Internal Medicine, NIIGATA UNIVERSITY School of Medicine
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